10.2 With的复合结构作独立主格
 
with复合结构与独立主格结构是英语中常见的两种结构形式。从某种意义上说,它们可以算作是非谓语动词用法的延伸。它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状况状语、条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用,一般也可以相互转换。虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同,但其结构形式和名称却不相同。

With复合结构的模式是:with+名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语)
独立主格结构的模式是:主格名词/代词(作逻辑主语)+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语(作逻辑谓语)
一、作时间状语
1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.         
=Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.     
2、With our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday.         
=Our work having been finished well, we went out for a holiday.     
3、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving.         
=The traffic light green, the bus got moving.     
4、With the wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel.         
=The wedding dinner party(being) over, we left the hotel.     
二、作原因状语
  5、With it being Sunday, the library was closed.    
=It being Sunday, the library was closed.    
6、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.         
=The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.   
7、With us to care for the children you are able to be carefree away from home.    
=We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.(注意此处的we 不得改成us,用了us便不是独立主格结构了。)   
8、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room.         
=The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.    
三、作条件状语    
1、With time permitting(许可),we’ll visit the Summer Palace.         
=Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace.   
2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.         
=The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.     
四、作伴随状况状语   
1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed.         
=The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.   
2、He wore a shirt with the neck open.         
=He wore a shirt, the neck open.   
3、Last night I followed him, and climbed in, with a sword in my hand.         
=Last night I followed him and climbed in, sword in hand.   
4、He sat there thinking, with his head on his hand.         
=He sat there thinking, head on hand.      注意:若with复合结构在句中作伴随状况状语,且结构模式又是“with+名词+介词短语”,那么with复合结构转换成独立主格结构时,介词前后的两个名词就应该用单数形式且不带包括冠词在内的任何限定词。
  表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。
  with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
  = He stood there, with his hand raise.

典型例题
  The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied  
  答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.  

注意:

1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
  当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
  A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. 
  ( hand前不能加his)。     

2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。
  He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
 
典型例题:
 Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
 A permitted  B permitting  C permits  D for permitting
  答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构, 其结构为:名词+分词。 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。
  如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。