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Kuwait(科威特)

2010-04-23 16:49:08 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0


KUWAIT
History   
  Kuwait was established in the 16th century when several clans from the Al Aniza tribe migrated to the northern shore of the Persian Gulf from the Najd, their famine-stricken homela

KUWAIT

\History  

  Kuwait was established in the 16th century when several clans from the Al Aniza tribe migrated to the northern shore of the Persian Gulf from the Najd, their famine-stricken homeland in central Arabia.  They settled in what is now known as Qatar for more than sixty years before migrating over sea to settle in the Isle De Chader. Kuwait was incorporated within the Ottoman Empire.   The current rulers of the country are descended from Sabah I, who was chosen by the community, which was composed mainly of traders.  The 17th century saw the Arabian Peninsula in tumultuous times. The area that is now Kuwait was occupied by tribes and used for spice trading from India.  By the 18th century, most of the local people made a living selling pearls. However, as pearl farming developed in Japan during the 1930s, Kuwait became impoverished. In 1899, Kuwait became a British protectorate.

Oil transformed Kuwait into one of the richest countries in the Arab peninsula; in 1953 the country became the largest exporter of oil in the Persian Gulf. Kuwait, having amassed great wealth, was the first of the Persian Gulf-Arab states to declare independence on 19 June 1961.  Iraq challenged this declaration, claiming that Kuwait was part of its territory. It threatened to invade Kuwait, but was deterred by the Egyptians.

Map of KuwaitAfter being allied with Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War until its end in 1988, Kuwait was invaded by Iraq (under Saddam Hussein) on 2 August 1990. Hussein charged that Kuwaiti territory was in fact an Iraqi province, and that annexation was retaliation for "economic warfare" Kuwait had allegedly waged through slant drilling into oil supplies that were in disputed territories. Authorised by the UN Security Council, an American-led coalition fought the Persian Gulf War to reinstate the Kuwaiti Emir.  Iraq withdrew its troops from Kuwait on 26 February 1991.

Geography   

  Kuwait is located in middle east, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.  Kuwait consists mostly of desert, with little altitude difference.  Kuwait is the only country in the world with no natural lake or water reservoir. It has nine islands, the largest one being the Bubiyan, which is linked to the mainland by a concrete bridge.  After the liberation in 1991, the island was converted into a military base and civilians are not allowed in.

Political System  

  Chief of state is the Emir, a semi-hereditary title. The emir appoints the prime minister, who until recently was also the crown prince.  A council of ministers aids the prime minister in his task as head of government. The parliament known, as the Majlis Al-Umma (National Assembly), consists of 50 members.  The members are chosen in elections held every four years. Government ministers, according to the Constitution of the State, are given automatic membership in the parliament.

Prior to 2005, only 15% of the Kuwaiti citizen population was allowed to vote, with all women, "recently naturalised" citizens (less than 30 years of citizenship), and members of the armed forces excluded.  On 16 May 2005, Parliament permitted women"s suffrage by a 35-23 vote, subject to Islamic law and effective for the 2007 Parliamentary Election.  Formerly, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia were the only remaining Middle Eastern countries without women"s suffrage. It is unclear what terms will be imposed upon female voters through the decision"s requirement of them to abide by Islamic law. The decision could raise Kuwait"s voter rolls from 139,000 to as many as 339,000 if all eligible women register.

Education System  

  Public education in Kuwait began when the government took control of education in 1939, creating 17 schools by 1945.  However, education was not made compulsory until 1965.  Kuwait University was founded in 1966 with just over 400 students.  Today, it is a coed institution made up of five different campuses.  From its small beginnings, Kuwait University has grown to nearly 18,000 students, both men and women, and has expanded from only 31 faculty members to include numerous colleges and departments.  Majors at the University include the Sciences, Arts & Education, Law & Shari"a, Commerce & Economics, Engineering & Petroleum, and Medicine.

In 1967, a private school system emerged with the help of government subsidies.  While private schooling is not free, subsidies continue to limit tuition rates.  Many private schools have foreign sponsors and are coed.  The Bayan Bilingual School, the American School of Kuwait, the American International School, the British School of Kuwait, and the French School are several of the many prestigious private schools in Kuwaiti.

Population   

  Kuwait is a small country and it has an estimated population of 2.3 million (including about 1.3 million of non-nationals).  About 80% of the Kuwaiti population is Arab; the non-Kuwaiti Arabs contain a large group of Egyptians and also stateless Arabs, locally known as Bidoon (an Arabic word meaning "without").  Other large groups of immigrants include Indians, Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, Egyptians and Filipinos. Kuwait formerly had a large Palestinian population, though most of them were forced out of the country after PLO leader Yassir Arafat"s support of Iraq during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait.

Capital   Kuwait

Languages  

  The official language is Arabic, although English is generally understood. Some immigrants also speak their own local languages.

Religions  

  About 85% of Kuwait"s population are Muslims.  Of Kuwait"s Muslims, it is estimated that around 70% of them are Sunni, and around 30% or slightly more are Shia Muslims.  A relatively large percentage of Kuwaitis belonging to Islam"s Shia sect is due to Kuwait"s close proximity to Iran and Iraq.

Economy   

  Kuwait is a small, rich, relatively open economy with proved crude oil reserves of 94 billion barrels (15km³) - 10% of world reserves. Petroleum accounts for nearly half of Gross domestic product (GDP), 90% of export revenues, and 75% of government income. Kuwait"s climate limits agricultural development. Consequently, with the exception of fish, it depends almost wholly on food imports.  About 75% of potable water must be distilled or imported. Kuwait continues its discussions with foreign oil companies to develop fields in the northern part of the country.  By 1990, the country earned more from foreign investment than from oil exports. The expenses of the Iraqi invasion and postwar reconstruction placed a heavy economic burden on the country, but by the mid-1990s Kuwait had resumed its preinvasion prosperity. GDP for 2003 was €34.6 billion (US$41.7 billion), giving Kuwait a per capita GDP of US$17,420 (€14,166). The labor force totals 1,073,115 people, only about one-quarter of whom are Kuwaiti citizens.

关键词:科威特

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