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Tunisia(突尼斯)

2010-04-23 16:48:37 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

TUNISIA 
History 
Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 10th century BC. In the 6th century BC, Carthage rose to power, but it was conquer

TUNISIA

\History

Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 10th century BC. In the 6th century BC, Carthage rose to power, but it was conquered by Rome (2nd century BC), and the region became one of the granaries of Rome.  It was held by the Vandals (5th century AD) and Byzantines (6th century).  In the 7th century it was conquered by Arab Muslims, who founded Al Qayrawan.  Successive Muslim dynasties ruled, interrupted by Berber rebellions.  The reigns of the Aghlabids (9th century) and of the Zirids (from 972), Berber followers of the Fatimids, were especially prosperous. When the Zirids angered the Fatimids in Cairo (1050), the latter sent in the Banu Hilal to ravage Tunisia. The coasts were held briefly by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th century. In 1159, Tunisia was conquered by the Almohad caliphs of Morocco. They were succeeded by the Berber Hafsids (1230 - 1574), under whom Tunisia prospered.  In the last years of the Hafsids, Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered for Islam by the Ottoman Empire.

Under its Turkish governors, the Beys, Tunisia attained virtual independence.  The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957.  In 1880, using the excuse that 9,000 Tunisians had entered into its colony Algeria, France made Tunisia its protectorate on 12 May 1881. Tunisia became independent in 1956.

Geography   

The Tunisian Republic or Tunisia is a Muslim Arab country situated on the North African Mediterranean coast.  It borders Algeria to the west, and Libya to the south and east.  It is the easternmost and smallest of the nations situated along the Atlas mountain range.

The terrain of Tunisia includes mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara.  About 40% of the country is comprised by the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of particularly fertile soil, with easily accessible coasts.  It is thought that the name Tunis Map of Tunisiaoriginated from Berber, meaning either a geographical promontory, or, "to spend the night."

Political System  

Tunisia is a republic with a strong presidential system dominated by a single political party.  President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali has been in office since 1987 when he deposed Habib Bourguiba, who had been President since Tunisia"s independence from France in 1956. The ruling party, the Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD), was the sole legal party for 25 years--when it was known as the Socialist Destourian Party (PSD) - and still dominates political life.

The President is elected to 5-year terms - with virtually no opposition - and appoints a Prime Minister and cabinet, who play a strong role in the execution of policy. Regional governors and local administrators also are appointed by the central government; largely consultative mayors and municipal councils are elected.  There is a unicameral legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, which has 182 seats, 20% of which are reserved for the opposition. It plays a growing role as an arena for debate on national policy but never originates legislation and virtually always passes bills presented by the executive with only minor changes.

Education System  

The duration of its compulsory education is 11 years. The duration of its primary and secondary education is of 6-year and 7-year respectively.  It was reported that the educational system is well established all over the country, and the teaching is based upon French standards. Higher education is fairly well developed, and the system has become more oriented towards competition between students than before. It has six universities.

Population   

Tunisia has an estimated population of 10 million. Modern Tunisians are the descendants of indigenous Berbers and of people from numerous civilizations that have invaded, migrated to, and been assimilated into the population over the millennia.  The major ethnic groups are Arab 98%; European 1%; Jewish and other 1%.

Capital    Tunis

Languages  

Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)

Religions  

Nearly all Tunisians (98% of the population) are Muslim. There has been a Jewish population on the southern island of Djerba for 2000 years, and though considerably diminished, there remains a small Jewish population in Tunis which is descended from those who fled Spain in the late 15th century. There is no indigenous Christian population. Small nomadic indigenous minorities have been mostly assimilated into the larger population.

Economy  

Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Real growth averaged 5.0% in the 1990s, and inflation is slowing.  Growth in tourism and increased trade were the key elements in this steady growth. Tunisia"s association agreement with the European Union (EU) entered into force on 1 March 1998, the first such accord between the EU and Mediterranean countries to be activated. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers to trade with the EU over the next decade. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, and improvements in government efficiency are among the challenges for the future.

Currency C Tunisian dinar   

The dinar (currency code TND) is the currency of Tunisia.  In January 2005 there were 1.23020 Tunisian dinars to one US dollar.

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  

The popular sport is football.  Tunisia held the African Nations Cup in 1964, 1994 and 2004. Timurasia became African Nations Champion in 2004.  It has also qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup which would be its third appearance in the World Cup.  Tunisia did not win any medal at the last two Summer Olympics.  It last won an Olympic medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics from its boxer Fathi Missaoui in the boxing event.  To date, Tunisia has won a total of one gold, two silver and three bronze medals.  The gold medal was won by Mohamed Gammoudi in the 5,000m race at the 1968 Summer Olympics.  Mohamed Gammoudi had competed in three Summer Olympics and had won one gold, two silver and two bronze medals for the country.

Culture

Tunisia became a center of Arab culture and learning and was assimilated into the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. It was a French protectorate from 1881 until independence in 1956, and retains close political, economic, and cultural ties with France. Near the capital of Tunis are the ruins of Carthage, once the center of the ancient Carthaginian empire which was defeated by the Roman Empire in three Punic wars.

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