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Togo(多哥)

2010-04-23 16:47:47 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

TOGO
History  
Little is known of present-day Togo before the Portuguese arrived in the late 15th century.  Various tribes moved into the country from all sides - the Ewé from Nigeria and Benin a

TOGO

\History 

Little is known of present-day Togo before the Portuguese arrived in the late 15th century.  Various tribes moved into the country from all sides - the Ewé from Nigeria and Benin and the Mina and Guin from Ghana.  When the slave trade began in earnest in the 16th century, several of the tribes - especially the Mina - became agents for the European traders, travelling inland to buy slaves from the Kabyé and other northern tribes.  Denmark staked a claim on Togo in the 18th century, but in 1884, Germany signed a deal with a local king and Togoland became a German colony. The Germans brought scientific cultivation to the country"s main export crops and developed its infrastructure to the highest level in Africa.  Still in 1914, Togo was occupied by French and British forces. Togo was split between the British and the French by League of Nations mandates af ter World War I ended in 1918.

During the colonial period, the Mina grew in political and economic influence by virtue of their coastal position and long association with Europeans. The Ewé, by contrast, were divided with the dissection of Togoland, and political groups on both sides began to agitate for reunification.  Hopes for unity were dashed when British Togoland voted to be incorporated into Ghana, then on the brink of independence.  After the expiration of the French-administered UN trusteeship on 27 April 1960, the French side declared its independence, with French Togoland becoming Togo.

In 1963, President Sylvanus Olympio, who took office as soon as Togo gained independence in 1960, was overthrown by Togolese veterans of the French army.  Olympio"s brother-in-law, Nicolas Grunitzky, returned from exile and was put in charge, but he too was deposed in January 1967 by then Lt Colonel (later General) Étienne Eyadéma who became president. Despite the façade of multiparty rule instituted in the early 1990s, the government continues to be dominated by the military, which has maintained its power continuously since 1967.  After nearly losing his life in a plane crash that he (at least publicly) chalked up to an assassination attempt, Eyadéma nationalised the country"s phosphate mines and ordered all Togolese to take an African name. He renamed himself Gnassingbé Eyadéma.

In the early 1990s, the international community began putting pressure on Eyadéma to democratize.  Eyadéma was summarily stripped of all powers and made president in name only.  An interim prime minister was elected to take over command, but not four months later his residence was shelled with heavy artillery by Eyadéma"s army.  Upon his death in February 2005, President Eyadema was succeeded by his son Faure Gnassingbe.  The succession supported by the military and in contravention of the nation"s constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders.  Gnassingbe succumbed to pressure and agreed to hold elections.  On 24 April 2005, Gnassingbé was elected president of Togo.

Geography  

The Togolese Republic is a country in West Africa.  It borders Ghana in the west, Benin in the east \and Burkina Faso in the north. In the south, it has a short Gulf of Guinea coast, on which the capital Lomé is located.

In the north the land is characterized by a gently rolling savannah in contrast to the centre of the country which is characterized by hills. The south of Togo is characterized by a plateau which reaches to a coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes. Togo stretches 579km north from the Gulf and is only 160km wide at the broadest point.  To the west and the southwest of the tableland lie the Togo Mountains.  These mountains run across the centreal region of Togo, ranging from the southwest to the northeast. The highest mountain of Togo is the Mount Agou with a height of 990m.

Political System    

President is the chief of state and is elected by popular vote for a five-year terms.  The prime minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president. The cabinet is appointed by the president and prime minister.  The unicameral National Assembly has 81 seats and the members are elected by popular votes to serve five-year terms.

Education System   

Primary school lasts for six years and leads to the Certificat d"Etudes du premier Degré (similar to Primary School Certificate).  Pupils are streamed at the end of primary schooling for entry to the first cycle of secondary education.  This cycle of lower secondary education lasts for four years after which students would need to take the examination to proceed for the next phase.  Students are streamed and oriented towards vocational or training institutions or enter the next-stage of secondary education.  This second cycle lasts for three years.  On completion of this cycle, pupils take the examinations for the entrance for higher education.  Higher education in Togo is provided by the Université du Bénin, recently renamed Université de Lomé, with several faculties, higher schools and institutes (including a recently founded National Institute of Educational Sciences) and several private schools and institutes.  A second university, the Université de Kara, has been founded recently.

Population   

Togo"s population of 5.0 million people is composed of about 21 ethnic groups. The two major groups are the Ewe in the South and the Kabye in the North. Other groups include the Akposso on the Central Plateau, the Bassar in the Center-West, the Cotocoli, the Tchamba and the Komkombas around Sokodé, the Lambas in the Kante region, the Haoussas and the Mossis farther in the North.  Among the others groups can be found the Tamberma, the Guin, the Losso, the Ouachi and the Gourma.  Population distribution is very uneven due to soil and terrain variations. The population is generally concentrated in the south and along the major north-south highway connecting the coast to the Sahel.

Capital    Lomé

Languages  

French, the official language, is used in administration and documentation. Most of the southern peoples use the Ewe or Mina languages, which are closely related and spoken in commercial sectors throughout Togo.  The public primary schools combine French with Ewe or Kabye as languages of instruction, depending on the region. English is spoken in neighboring Ghana and is taught in Togolese secondary schools.  As a result, many Togolese, especially in the south and along the Ghana border, speak some English.

Religions   

Indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 35%, Muslim 15%

Economy  

关键词:多哥

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