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Gabon(加蓬)

2010-04-23 16:39:45 作者:english88 来源:english88 浏览次数:0 网友评论 0

GABON
History
During the last seven centuries, Bantu ethnic groups arrived in the area from several directions to escape enemies or find new land.    Gabon"s first European visitors were Portuguese trad

GABON

History

\During the last seven centuries, Bantu ethnic groups arrived in the area from several directions to escape enemies or find new land.    Gabon"s first European visitors were Portuguese traders who arrived in the 15th century and named the country after the Portuguese word "gabao," a coat with sleeve and hood resembling the shape of the Komo River estuary.  The coast became center of the slave trade. Dutch, British, and French traders came in the 16th century.  France assumed the status of protector by signing treaties with Gabonese coastal chiefs in 1839 and 1841.  France occupied Gabon in 1885 but did not administer it until 1903.   In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa.  In 1911, France ceded the control of French Equatorial Africa to Germany.  After World War 1, French Equatorial Africa returned to French rule.

The federation of French Equatorial Africa survived until 1959.  The territories became independent on 17 August 1960 as the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, and Gabon.

Geography

Gabon is a country in West Africa, lying along the Atlantic \Ocean, just south of the Bight of Biafra.  Gabon borders Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon to the north, and the Republic of the Congo to the west and south.  Gabon lies on the equator.  The terrain consists of the coastal plain with the inner part of the country contains plateau and mountainous region, with elevation greater than 1,000m.  Gabon"s largest river is the Ogooué.  Gabon has the largest area of nature parks in the world.

Political System

Gabon is a republic with a presidential form of government. The president appoints the prime minister, the cabinet, and judges of the independent Supreme Court.  The president serves as Gabon’s head of state. The president is directly elected to a seven-year term and retains strong powers, such as authority to dissolve the National Assembly, declare a state of siege, delay legislation, conduct referenda, and appoint and dismiss the prime minister and cabinet members.  In consultation with the president, the prime minister appoints the Council of Ministers.  The bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (91 seats) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats); members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms.

Education System

Schooling is officially compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 16, though not all children in that age group actually attend schools. In the 1995 school year 250,700 pupils attended primary schools, and 80,600 students were listed in secondary schools. The nation has technical institutions and teachers colleges, as well as a university, the Université Omar Bongo (founded in 1970).

Population

Gabon has an estimated population of 1.4 million. Some 54% of the people live in urban areas. Much of the nation’s interior is uncolonised.  Almost all Gabonese are of Bantu origin. Gabon has at least 40 ethnic groups with separate languages and cultures. The largest is the Fang, found in southern Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, account for one-third of the population. They live north of the Ogooué River.  The largest groups live in the southern part of Ogooué are the Sira, the Nzebi and the Mbete. These groups together forms close to half of the population.  Less numerous peoples include the Benga and Seke in the far northwest, the Kota and Teke in the east, and the Vili along the far southern coast. Ethnic group boundaries are less sharply drawn in Gabon than elsewhere in Africa. More than 10,000 French people live in Gabon.

Capital

Libreville

Languages

    French is the official language, however, Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira and Bandjabi also spoken by the residents.

Religions

    About 60% of the population is Christian, primarily Roman Catholic.  Most of the remainder follows orthodox beliefs and about 1% is Muslim.

Economy

The economy of Gabon is largely dependent on the exploitation of mineral and forest resources, particularly oil.  Gabon"s economy has more links with European and American markets than with those in neighbouring states or elsewhere in Africa. Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. This has supported a sharp decline in extreme poverty yet because of high income inequality a large proportion of the population remains poor.   Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was determined offshore in the early 1970s.

Currency C CFA franc

Gabon uses CFA franc.  The CFA franc (currency code XOF) is a currency used in 12 formerly French-ruled African countries, as well as in Guinea-Bissau (former Portuguese colony) and in Equatorial Guinea (former Spanish colony).  It has a fixed rate compared to the euro: 100 CFA francs = 0.152449 euro, or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics

Football is one of the more popular sports in Gabon.  The 2004 Athens Olympic games is the country’s seventh participation since 1972. It has yet to win an Olympic medal.

Culture

Gabon"s contemporary writers express themselves almost exclusively in French. The country boasts an array of folk styles, as well as pop stars like Patience Dabany (who now lives in the US). Dabany"s albums, though recorded in Los Angeles, have a distinctively Gabonese element and are popular throughout Francophone Africa. The history of modern Gabonese music did not begin until about 1974, when the blind guitarist and singer Pierre Akendengue released his first album. He was classically trained in Europe, and his compositions reflect the influence of Western classical music.

加蓬

历史

\在最近的7 个世纪中,班图族群从各个地来到这个地区以躲避敌人或寻找新陆地。 第一个来到加蓬的欧洲人是葡萄牙商人,他们15世纪来到这里并以葡萄牙语“gabao”命名这个国家。“gabao”在葡萄牙语的意思是有着袖子和风帽形状类似Komo河支流外套。 这里海岸逐渐成为奴隶贸易的中心。 荷兰,英国和法国的商人于16世纪来到这里。法国人于1839年和1841年与加蓬海岸的酋长签署条约,成为他们的保护者。 法国在1885年占领加蓬,直到1903年才行使管理。在1910年,加蓬成为4个法属赤道非洲的4个领地之一。 1911年法国将法属赤道非洲的控制权转让给德国第一次世界大战后,法属赤道非洲复归法国。

法属赤道非洲联邦维持到1959年。 1960年8月17日,4 个领地独立成为四个国家:中非共和国,乍得,刚果和加蓬。

\地理

加蓬是一个西非国家,西临大西洋,位于比夫拉湾南面。 加蓬的北部与赤道几内亚和喀麦隆接壤,西部和南部与刚果共和国接壤。 加蓬横跨赤道线沿海为平原,内地为高原山地地区, 山地都在海拔1000米以上。 加蓬最大的河流是奥果韦(Ogooué) 河。 加蓬自然公园的面积是世界上最大的。

关键词:加蓬

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